Growing onions from seed
As a culture, onions were known, eaten as a medicine, even by Sumerians. In Russia, onion culture appeared around the XII century. Today it is cultivated all over the globe. This plant has gained such popularity for its medicinal and nutritional qualities. Onions and green onions on a feather contain volatile products - compounds with the strongest bactericidal properties, vitamins A, B, B1, B2, C, PP, mineral salts and other substances necessary for a person. It is eaten fresh in salads, as well as in the preparation of hot dishes and in canning. In this article we will talk about agrotechnics for growing onions from sevka.
- Biological features of onions
- Varietal variety of onions
- General approaches to onion cultivation agricultural techniques
- The specifics of growing onion turnips from sevka
- Protection against diseases and pests
- Varieties of onions for growing turnips in summer cottages
Biological features of onions
Onions are one, two, and three year old plants. In the first year, onion sets or arbazheika are obtained from onion seeds (chernushka) - small onions 1-2 cm in diameter with 2-5 gram weight. For 2 years, a large bulb (uterus) is obtained from the set. Uterine bulbs are marketable onions. In the third year, planting the uterus, they receive onion seeds, which are called chernushka for color.
In the southern regions, onion seeds can also be obtained with two-year cultivation: in the first year they receive a large uterine bulb and in the second year a testicle that forms on a high straight peduncle in the form of capitate rounded inflorescences.
Varietal variety of onions
Onion, in relation to the length of the light period, is divided into 2 large groups:
- a group of varieties of the northern direction. They normally develop and form a vegetative (bulb) and generative (chernushka seeds) crop only with a daylight hours of 15-18 hours a day. Northern varieties in the conditions of short daylight hours only grow a green feather, but they do not form bulbs at all.
- Varieties of the southern regions form a normal crop with a short daylight - 12 hours a day. When lengthening the light period in southern varieties, the bulbs do not ripen, poorly stored.
- Today, breeders have bred varieties that do not react so painfully to the length of daylight and normally grow and develop in the north and south, with other optimal conditions.
By taste, onions are divided into 3 groups:
- sweet or salad.
Essential oils, or rather, the ratio between sugars and essential oils, give specific sharpness or bitterness to onions. The less sugar, the less essential oils, and therefore less sharp onions and leaves (feather) of onions. Today, breeders offer varieties without bitterness, the so-called sweet salad.
General approaches to onion cultivation agricultural techniques
Predecessors and compatibility
Onions have a fibrous root system, which cannot form high yields without additional nutrition. Therefore, onions are placed after crops that received manure during autumn tillage (early cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, early and medium potatoes, zucchini, melons, legumes).
Onions have good compatibility with all types of cabbage, carrots, beets, radishes, green, which allows you to combine these crops in compacted crops.
Onions normally develop on neutral soils at pH = 6.4-6.7. If the soil is acidified by prolonged application of mineral fertilizers, then 2-3 years before sowing onions, the soil under the previous crops is deoxidized by adding slaked lime, dolomite flour 200 g / m². Liming the soil before sowing, planting, the onion does not tolerate. You can use wood ash 300-400 g per 1 m² of area.
Onions do not like fresh organic matter, but on depleted soils in autumn or spring, you can add a mature humus for it at 1.5-2.0 kg / m². In the fall, some phosphoric and potassium fertilizers are also added for digging.
The second half with the addition of nitrogen fertilizers is used in the spring before sowing and planting crops. On rich chernozems, they are limited to introducing decomposed organics for digging. On peat, nitrogen fertilizers are excluded, and the phosphorus dose is increased by 30-40%.
Onions are cold-resistant crops. Therefore, sowing and planting is carried out in the early spring, when the soil temperature in the 10 cm layer rises to +10 .. + 12 ° C, and the air does not fall below +3 .. + 5 ° C. Onion shoots are not afraid of short-term return spring frosts. Cooling down to -3 ° C does not harm seedlings, but adult plants at the onset of low temperatures (-3 ..- 5 ° C) stop the growth and development, ripening of seeds.
Onions need a sufficient amount of moisture, especially during the formation of seeds and the uterine bulb. Seeds with a lack of moisture are punctured with low germination, and the bulbs are small and low-sucking.
Onions are grown in several ways: seeds, sowing (arbazheyka), sample, seedlings.
The specifics of growing onion turnips from sevka
The most common method in all regions for producing large commodity bulbs is cultivation from the seeds.
Soil preparation for sowing
In garden cultivation, onions are returned to their original place in 3-5 years. In the fall, after harvesting the predecessor, the soil is freed from weeds and watered, provoking the emergence of weeds. Then dig deeply (25-30 cm).
Before digging on depleted soils, a matured humus or compost (0.5 buckets), and full mineral fertilizer - 25-30 g of urea and granular superphosphate, 15-25 g of chlorine-free potash fertilizers are introduced per 1 m². In the spring, before sowing, the seeds are introduced by loosening 10-15 g of nitroammophoski.
Onions love to show themselves in all their glory, therefore, on loamy soils, planting is done on ridges on which the bulb is opened 1/3 from the growth phase of the turnip (shoulders are freed). This technique helps to form a large onion and mature in time. The top, hidden under heavy soil, accumulates water (especially in rainy weather) and is affected by a fungal infection.
On light permeable soils, performing the same technique, the arbazheika is planted on a flat surface. The mulched surface does not allow rapid evaporation of moisture, and open shoulders receive the right proportion of sunlight.
Preparation of sets
In the autumn, after harvesting and drying, the harvested crop is divided into 2 fractions. Planting material with a diameter of 1.5-3.0 cm (sev) and smaller than 1 cm (sack) is selected. Oatmeal, usually in the warm regions, is sown before winter in the open ground, and in the cold northern regions - in the greenhouse.
In the spring, 2 weeks before planting, the seeds are sorted into fractions and single-sized onions are planted separately, which makes it possible to obtain bulbs of uniform size. The selected material is freed from dried and diseased bulbs, dry scales and other small debris.
Arbazheyka with a diameter of more than 3 cm (sample) are planted separately. Large bulbs shoot early and do not form a normal bulb. Therefore, they are usually used to obtain a green feather.
The material selected for landing is heated for 6-7 hours at a temperature of +40 .. + 45 ° C. Before planting, planting material is disinfected in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (0.5 hours). Recently, solutions of biofungicides (planriz, gamair, phytosporin) are more often used. Sevc is soaked for 1-2 hours before disembarkation at a constant.
Arbazheika is planted for their own use, usually in a single-line method, leaving row spacing of 40 cm and in a row of 4-6 cm. You can use a multi-line sowing planting with row spacing of 20 cm for planting. In this case, the middle row of 3 line ribbon is used on the feather. The freed area will allow the formation of a larger bulb.
Depth of landing is regulated by the size of the arbazheika. Planted it so that the "tail" was not covered with soil. In dry weather, pre-emergence watering is carried out, or furrows are watered from a watering can before planting.
Shoots appear on the 9-12th day. It is very important not to start sowing and get rid of weeds and soil crust on time. Loosening is superficial so as not to damage the delicate root system of the seed set in the upper 10-30 cm layer. You can not spud onions!
The first dressing is carried out in the phase of leaf growth, after 2-3 weeks, especially if the onion develops a thin light feather. Usually, urea is used at the rate of 20-25 g per 10 liters of water and a solution is added under the root for 10-12 linear meters. During this period, good results are provided by top dressing with nitrofos, nitroammophos, 25-30 g / m² of area under irrigation or solution, as well as urea. When dressing with solutions, it is imperative to wash the plants with clean water from a watering can with a fine-mesh nozzle.
The second feeding is carried out with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in the second decade of June or 3 weeks after the first. Prepare a solution of 20-30 g of superphosphate and 10-13 g of potassium salt. You can use nitroammophosco - 40 g / 10 l of water (2 tablespoons without top).
On depleted soils, a third top dressing can be carried out (see the state of the plants), but nitrogen fertilizers must be removed from the composition. You can use the phosphorus-potassium composition in the dose used for the second top dressing.
It should be noted that the soil, well tilled before planting, eliminates top dressing. Weed removal, cultivation and watering are sufficient to obtain an average crop of environmentally friendly vegetable products.
Onions for normal growth and development use little water, but require constantly moist soil in the first month after germination and during the period of bulb growth. At first, watering is carried out once every 2 weeks, and if the weather is dry and hot - once a week, followed by mandatory loosening of the soil (destruction of pests and their larvae), mulching.
The soil is soaked in the first month to 10 cm layer, increasing it to the phase of bulb growth to 20-25 cm. In the last month, watering is stopped and switched to “dry watering”, that is, loosening the soil, destroying the drying crust, releasing the upper part of the bulbs from land.
Protection against diseases and pests
Of the diseases, most often, onions are damaged by fungal diseases (downy mildew, root rot) and numerous pests (onion flies, moths, thrips, nematodes, grubs, crypto-carnivores) associated with a violation of the recommended cultivation farming technique.
At the first visible changes in the color of the leaves, the appearance of light dots, dashes, the withering of the pen, its twisting, it is necessary to sprinkle the leaves with a tank mixture of biofungicides and bioinsecticides, according to the recommendations. They are harmless to humans and animals. Chemical protective equipment onions is not recommended, and when cultivated on a green feather - is prohibited.
The onset of the ripening and harvesting phase is determined by the condition of the leaves. Their lodging and yellowing indicate the ripening of the bulbs. In dry and sunny weather, the bulbs are pulled out of the soil and left in place or transferred under a canopy and dried for 7-10 days. Sort and cut, leaving a stump of 5-6 cm. If the soil is dense, then the roots are pruned, trying not to damage the bulb.
Varieties of onions for growing turnips in summer cottages
For northern areas
- Peninsulas - Azelros, Crimson Ball;
- Acute - Bessonovsky local, Rostov local;
- Salad - Lisbon White, Isla Bright, Alice, Albion F1
For southern areas
- Peninsulas - Kasatik;
- Sharp - Sunny;
- Salad - Dniester, Kaba, Kaba yellow.
Varietal variety of onions is much richer than the above examples. But when choosing seeds or seeds for growing in the country, be sure to use local zoned varieties. Varietal confusion is unacceptable. You will not get the expected yield, and the grown bulbs will be of poor quality and devoid of keeping quality.