Complex mineral fertilizers
Fertilizers are simple, consisting of only one element, for example, nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium, and complex when there are several components in the composition of such fertilizers. Based on the composition, they are divided into binary, that is, having only a couple of elements in its composition, for example, nitrogen and phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium or phosphorus and potassium and triple, containing three or more elements, say, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements .
- Classification of mineral fertilizers
- Compound fertilizer
- Combined or complex mixed fertilizers
- Mixed fertilizer
- Multifunctional fertilizers
- Fertilizer mixtures
- The most famous complex fertilizers
- Complex fertilizer - amophos
- Complex fertilizer - sulfoammophos
- Complex fertilizer - diammonium phosphate
- Complex fertilizer - ammofoska
- Complex fertilizers - nitroammophos and nitroammophosk
- Liquid complex fertilizers
Classification of mineral fertilizers
In fact, the range of complex fertilizers cannot be called very significant and confusing, and even having the initial knowledge that this material will provide you with, it is quite possible to understand them without much difficulty.
Typically, these are double fertilizers containing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), for example nitrogen-phosphorus: ammophos, nitroammophos, nitrophos, as well as double phosphorus-potassium fertilizers containing phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), specifically potassium phosphate or potassium monophosphate, as well as ternary, having all three compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK): ammofoska, nitroammphoska, nitrophoska and magnesium-ammonium phosphate containing nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium (Mg).
In addition to such a simple division, there is a more complex one, that is, according to the option of obtaining fertilizer. They are divided into complex, combined (complex-mixed fertilizers), mixed, multifunctional fertilizers and fertilizer mixtures.
The first category is complex fertilizers, it includes potassium nitrate or potassium nitrate (KNO3) - diammophos and ammophos. Such fertilizers are produced by chemical interaction of the initial substances. For example, in their composition, in addition to the NPKs familiar to us - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, microelements, various pesticides (fungicides, acaricides, insecticides) or herbicides (weed control agents) may be present.
Combined or complex mixed fertilizers
Further, combined or complex-mixed fertilizers, this group includes fertilizers, the result of the production of which is a single technical process. In a small granule of such fertilizer all three main elements can be contained, but not in the general chemical compound, but in different ones. They can be obtained due to the special chemical and physical effects on the starting products.
It can also be fertilizers consisting of one element or several. This group includes: nitrophos and nitrophoska, nitroammophos and nitroammophoska, as well as potassium and ammonium polyphosphates, carboammophos, pressed phosphorus-potassium and complex liquid. The proportion of nutrients they contain is based on the amount of initial substances needed for the manufacture.
Mixed fertilizers are commonplace mixes of the most basic nutrients that are produced in factories or in mobile plants (making fertilizer mixtures).
Complex and difficult-mixed nutrients are always characterized by an increased proportion of the basic elements, therefore, their use is a tangible reduction in the cost of enriching the soil. Simply put, if you buy and deposit each element individually, it will be more expensive than if you deposit them all at once, when they are combined in one connection.
Such fertilizers, however, also have negative qualities - for example, the proportions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in these fertilizers usually vary within fairly narrow limits. What is this talking about? Say, if you need to focus on nitrogen, and you are introducing a complex fertilizer in which this element is the most, you will still enrich the soil with phosphorus and potassium, and not always in optimal doses.
In addition to the listed groups of complex fertilizers, there are several more, for example, multifunctional fertilizers. In addition to the basic elements, various microelements and biostimulants are present in them. These substances usually have an immunity-enhancing effect and enhance the growth activity of plants.
Do not forget about fertilizer mixtures, now in our country the production of these fertilizers is reaching a new level. Fertilizer mixtures are mechanically mixed and necessarily compatible with each other types of fertilizers. The composition of fertilizer mixtures can be made completely different, allowing you to choose a specific ratio for a particular crop, such as soil and even the region. In Western countries, the use of fertilizer mixtures is a well and long-known method of enriching the soil with food, but for our country this, we can say, is still a novelty.
The most famous complex fertilizers
Let's talk about the main and most commonly used complex fertilizers.
Complex fertilizer - amophos
Let's start with the ammophos fertilizer. This is monoammonium phosphate, the chemical formula of this fertilizer is NH4H2PO4. Fertilizer is highly concentrated, it is a granule containing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). At the same time, nitrogen in this fertilizer is in ammonium form. Fertilizer is good because it does not absorb moisture and can be stored in ordinary rooms, when applied it does not form a dust cloud, during long-term storage its caking does not occur, therefore, it is not necessary to crush it before application. The lack of hygroscopicity, however, does not affect the solubility of the fertilizer in water.
It is noteworthy that taking ammophos as a basis, you can prepare a large number of a wide variety of brands of mixed fertilizers. This fertilizer is considered highly effective and quite universal. Ammophos can be introduced into a wide variety of soil types and used both for the main fertilizer of the soil and for additional top dressing. Ammophos is also good for fertilizing the soil of greenhouses and greenhouses. The greatest effect of the use of ammophos is achieved in areas where droughts often occur, respectively, nitrogen fertilizers need less than phosphorus fertilizers.
Complex fertilizer - sulfoammophos
The next widespread complex fertilizer is sulfoammophos, its chemical formula (NH4) 2HPO4 + (NH4) 2SO4. This fertilizer is considered universal and perfectly soluble in water. Externally, these are granules that contain nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Fertilizer is good because it does not caking during storage, therefore, before applying it does not need crushing. The fertilizer does not have hygroscopicity, therefore, it can be stored in ordinary rooms, in addition, when applied and sprinkled, the fertilizer does not form dust.
Unlike ammophos, sulfoammophos incorporates phosphorus, which is better soluble in water; in addition, the ratio of these two substances is more balanced. The nitrogen component is in the form of ammonium, therefore, nitrogen is extremely slowly washed out of the soil and a significant part of it will be absorbed by plants.
In addition, sulfur (S) is also present in the composition of sulfoammophos; if fertilized, for example, under wheat, it increases the level of gluten. When fertilizing the soil for sunflower, rape and soybean, sulfoammophos increases the oil content in the seeds.
In small amounts, about half a percent, this fertilizer contains magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca), they are necessary for the full life of plants.
Use this fertilizer on any type of soil, it is suitable for any crop. Fertilizer can be applied to the soil both as primary and secondary. The success of its use in greenhouses and greenhouses, especially in combination with nitrogen fertilizers and containing potassium, has been proven. Using sulfoammophos, a wide variety of mixed fertilizers can be produced.
Complex fertilizer - diammonium phosphate
Another complex fertilizer is diammonium phosphate, in fact it is diammonium hydrogen phosphate, its chemical formula has the form (NH4)2HPO4. This fertilizer is concentrated, it has no nitrates, is readily soluble in water and represents granules, the main elements of which are nitrogen and phosphorus. The undoubted advantages of this fertilizer are the lack of hygroscopicity, caking and dust formation when applied to the soil and pouring. In addition to the basic elements in the fertilizer there is sulfur (S).
Complex fertilizer - ammofoska
Familiar to many ammofoska (NH4)2SO4 + (NH4)2HPO4 + K2SO4, - it contains all three essential elements. The effectiveness of this fertilizer has been proven more than once, in essence it is a rather complex fertilizer in which potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) are potassium sulfate (K2SO4) and phosphate, and nitrogen - ammonium sulfate. Ammofoska does not have hygroscopicity, caking. Nitrogen in the composition of this fertilizer is practically not washed out of the soil.
In addition to the three main elements, sulfur (S) is also present in the ammophos, and calcium and magnesium are also present. Given the absence of chlorine in the composition, this fertilizer can be safely used on soils with salinization. This fertilizer can be used as the main or additional on any type of soil and under all crops. Fruit and berry plants, as well as a number of vegetable crops, such as potatoes, respond particularly well to ammophos. Ammofoska is a good fertilizer for greenhouses and greenhouses.
Complex fertilizers - nitroammophos and nitroammophosk
Nitroammophos (nitrophosphate) (NP) and nitroammophos (NPK), both of these complex fertilizers are obtained by neutralizing a mixture of phosphoric and nitric acids with ammonia. That fertilizer that is produced from monoammonium phosphate is called nitroammophos, and if potassium (K) is added to its composition, then it is called nitroammophos. In these complex fertilizers there is more nitrophosphate; additional nutrients are present, the ratio of which can vary.
For example, nitroammophos fertilizer can be produced with the amount of nitrogen in its composition varying from 30 to 10 percent, phosphorus from 25-26 to 13-15 percent. As for nitroammophos, in its composition of the main elements, that is, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N, P, K), about 51%. In total, two brands of nitroammophoski are produced - brand “A” and brand “B”. In the brand "A" the composition of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is divided as follows - 17 (N), 17 (P) and 17 (K), and in the brand "B" - 13 (N), 19 (P) and 19 (K ), respectively. At present, other brands of nitroammophoski with other compounds can also be found on sale.
All elements in the nitroammophos are in water-soluble form, so they will be easily accessible to plants. The effect of nitroammophoski is exactly the same as if we introduced each of these elements separately, but at the cost it turns out to be almost twice cheaper to use nitroammophoska. It can be applied on any type of soil, both in autumn, and in spring or during the season.
Liquid Integrated Fertilizer
Well, in conclusion, we will talk about liquid complex fertilizers, because both gardeners and gardeners often have questions about them. Complex liquid fertilizers are produced by neutralizing polyphosphoric and phosphoric acid with ammonia, with the addition of various fertilizers containing nitrogen, for example, urea or ammonium nitrate, as well as potassium sulfate, potassium chloride, and trace elements are also included in especially expensive liquid complex fertilizers.
The result is a fertilizer, in which the proportion of nutrients, which are based on phosphoric acid, reaches only thirty percent, this is quite small, but if the solution is more concentrated, then at low temperature the salts crystallize and precipitate.
In liquid complex fertilizers, the ratios of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are sometimes quite different. For example, nitrogen can be from five to ten percent, and phosphorus and potassium - from six to ten percent. In Russia, liquid complex fertilizers are usually produced with a nutrient ratio of 9 (N) to 9 (P) to 9 (K), as well as 7 to 14 and to 7, then 6/18/6 and 8/24/0. their composition is usually written on the packaging.
In addition, liquid complex fertilizers are made on the basis of polyphosphate acid, in which up to 40% of nutrients, for example, can be 10 to 34 and 0 NPK or 11 to 37 and 0 of the same elements. These liquid complex fertilizers can be obtained by saturation with ammonia of superphosphoric acid.
These fertilizers are sometimes called basic, they are often used for the manufacture of the so-called triple liquid complex fertilizers, the composition of which can vary greatly. It is allowed to add ammonium nitrate, urea or potassium chloride to the composition. In the latter case, the negative effect of chlorine is leveled.
Of course, liquid complex fertilizers have their drawbacks, the main one is the difficulty in applying them. In order to enrich the soil with nutrients using such fertilizers, it is necessary to have special equipment available for transporting, applying and storing liquid nutrients.
As for the direct application of any fertilizer, the process can be carried out by continuously scattering on the surface of the soil before digging the soil or plowing, to fertilize when planting or planting plants or in row-spacing when feeding during the season.
Now you know what complex fertilizers are, if you still have questions, then write them in the comments, we will be happy to answer.